CSS Syllabus Anthropology – 100 Marks

I. Anthropology

§ Definition of anthropology, its historical development and recent trends

II. Social Anthropology

§ Definition of culture, its characteristics and functions

§ Relationship of anthropology with other social sciences

§ Sub fields of anthropology that is Biological, archeological, linguistics

§ Institution of Family and Marriage

(Definition, types, structure, functions, family organization)

§ Kinship and Social Organization

(Definition, types, functions, kinship terminology etc)

§ Economic Organization: (Definition, evolution, substantivism versus formalism, reciprocity, production, consumption, redistribution, barter and primitive economic systems)

§ Political organization: (Definition, evolution of political system, characteristics of Band societies, tribal societies, Chiefdom, and State societies. Internal conflict theories, external conflict theories, origin of civilization, the politic of identity, ethnicity, nationalism modernism, post modernism etc

§ Religion: (Definition, evolution of primitive religions, functions of religion, comparison of divine religions and other world religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism etc

§ Contemporary human problems; such as poverty, social inequality, political instability, population problems and ethnic violence and terrorism etc

III. Urban Anthropology

Rural-urban migration, expansion of cities, major environmental issues, and sanitation problems. Urbanization and development, establishment of slums and squatter settlements, refugees, Yankees, betties, gypsies, wars and conflict. Conversion of power from feudal to industrialists, institutionalization, education system, and change in the mode of production: agriculture to Capitalists’ poverty: theories and remedies, psychological, cultural, economical, political, religious, physical, environmental, ecological, demographical, lingual, and city management. Conflict theory: Carl Marx, problems created by the mechanization and automation.

IV. Socio-Cultural Changes

Definitions of socio-cultural Changes, various Dimensions of Social Change, barriers in socio-cultural and psychological change. Motivational factors for change, Population

pressure, diffusion of innovation, socio-religious barriers in accepting the innovation and new ideas. Media and Cultural Change, Dynamics of change in Pakistan: Trends and Prospects

V. Ethnicity and race

Ethnic Groups and Ethnicity: Origin of race and theories; Ethnic Groups, Nations and Nationality; Ethnic Conflict; Degree of Social Variation; Rank Societies; caste and Class Societies; Racism and Inequality, Ethnicity and Inequality, and Social Stratification etc.

VI. Anthropological Theories

§ Contributors: (Edward Burnett Taylor, Lewis Henry Morgan, James Frazer, Kari Marx, Edmund Leach, Franz Boas, Margaret Mead, Ruth Benedict, Alfred Krobber, AR Radcliff-Brown, Malinowski, Clifford Geertz, Talal Asad, Akbar S Ahamd, ibne-Khaldoon, Shah Waliulah)

§ Classical Theories (Degenerations, Evolutionism, Diffusions,

§ Modern Theories Functionalism, Structural-functionalism, Class struggle, Structuralism, Historical Particularism, Feminism, Culture and personality)

§ Current Trends in Anthropological Thoughts: (Post Modernism, Romanticism, Poetics and Political of Ethnography)

VII. Anthropological Research Methods

§ Meaning, definition, types and aims of social research

§ Qualitative and Quantitative research

§ Purpose of research, Research Question, Variables, Hypothesis, Research Objective, Research design, Sampling, field Data Collection, Tools of Data Collection (Questionnaire, Interview, Participant Observation), Data Classification, Data Analysis, and Report Writing.


S.No. Title Author
1. Anthropology William A Haviland
2. Cultural Anthropology Onrad Philip Kottak
3. Diffusion of Innovation Evert M. Roger
4. Socio Cultural Dynamics and impact of
Technological Change
G. M. Foster
5. Pakistani Society Akber S. Ahmed
6. Economic Anthropology Sutti Ortiz
7. Political Anthropology: An introduction Ted. C. Lawellen
S.No. Title Author
8. Pukhtun economy and society Akber S. Ahmed
9. Principles of Anthropology Eliot Dismore Chapple and
Carleton Stevens Coon
10. Anthropology and Modern life Franz Boas
11. Anthropology and Contemporary Human
John H. Bodley
12. Sindh and the Races that inhabit the Valley of the Indus Richard Burton
13. The People of Pakistan Yu. V. Gankorvsky
14. Anthropology and Development Jean-Pierre Olivier de
15. An Introduction to Theory in Anthropology Robert Layton
16. Anthropological Theory John R. McGee and Richard
L. Warms
17. Anthropology in Pakistan Stephen Pastner and Louis
18. Anthropology (13th edition) Carol R. Ember, Melvin R Ember and Pet N Peregrine
19. Other Cultures John Beattie
20. A Hand Book of Social Science Research Bevelry R. Dixon, Gary D Bouma and G.B.J. Atiinson
21. Frontier Perspectives: Essays in Comparative
Clarlies Lindholm
22. Generosity and Jealousy: The Swat Pukhtun of
Northern Pakistan
Clarlies Lindholm
23. Friend by Day and Enemy by Night: Organized
Vengeance in a Kohistani Community
Lincoin Keiser
24. A Punjabi Village in Pakistan Zekiye Eglar
25. The social organization of the Marri Baluch Robert Niel Pehrson
26. Introducing Anthropology Park, MA 2007
27. Peoples and Cultures of Asia Scupin, R 2005
28. Outlines and Highlights for Anthropology Scupin, R and Decorse, CR
29. Economic Anthropology Stuart plattner
30. Economies and Culture Richard Wilk
31. Introduction to Anthropology of Religion Brian Moris

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