Journalism and Mass Communication

CSS Syllabus Journalism and Mass Communication – 100 Marks

I. Introduction to Mass Communication

§ Concept – Definitions, Need/Importance/Purposes, Types of Communication, Process of Communication, Basic Models.

§ Functions of a model, Evaluation of a model

§ Basic models in Mass Communication: –

o Lasswell’s Model (1948)

o Shannon-Weaver model (1948)

o Osgood,s model (1954)

o Schramm’s model (1954)

o Newcmb’s symmetry theory (1953)

o Westley-McLean’s model (1976)

o Gerbner model (1956)
II. Mass Communication Theories

§ Normative theories of the press: Schramm’s four theories and criticism on these theories

§ Media as agents of power

§ The Spiral of silence

§ Media Usage and gratifications

§ Media hegemony

§ Diffusion of innovations

§ Powerful effects model: hypodermic needle, silver bullet

§ Moderate effects model: two-step and multi-step flow of communication.

§ Powerful media revisited: Marshal McLuhan’s media determinism

III. Global / International Communication

§ The Historical Context of International Communication

§ Globalization, technology, and the mass media

§ Communication and Cultural imperialism

§ Communication Flow in Global Media: Imbalance in the flow of information between North and South

§ McBride commission and its recommendations.

§ International Communication in the Internet Age: the new social media and its effects on developing world

IV. Media and Society

§ Mass media and social change
§ Media as a social system: The balance between interdependence interrelation and
§ Media freedom and its role for democracy,
§ The functional approach to mass media: four social functions of the media

§ Media as an awareness agent

§ Mass media and social representation

V. Mass Media in Pakistan:

§ Media system in Pakistan: historical, chronological, and analytical review

§ The system of journalism and the media system

§ Employer-employee relations in Pakistani media

§ Government-press relations

§ Press in Pakistan: The newspaper industry, from mission to the market

§ Electronic media: from total dependence to enormous power

§ The new 24/7 television: uses and abuses

§ The new radio: potential for change and the present performance.

§ The question of freedom and responsibility

VI. Development Support Communication

§ Theories of development support communication with specific focus on the developing world

§ The dominant paradigm of development: historical, analytical perspective

§ The Alternative paradigm of development

§ Small is beautiful: community development as a snowball effect.

§ Globalization vs Localization

§ Glocalization

§ Social Marketing: how to infuse new ideas into a developing population

VII. Public Relations:

§ Concept of Public Relations

§ Historical development of public relations: from press agentry to PR

§ Public relation in Pakistan

§ Ministry of information

§ Press Information Department (PID)

§ Public relations and publicity

§ PR as a tool for governance

§ Private PR agencies and their structure

§ Basic methods of PR: press release, press note, press conference

§ PR Ethics

VIII. Media Laws and Ethics:

§ History of Media Laws in Pakistan

§ Development of media regulations from British colonial era to independent

§ Libel, Defamation and relevant portions of PPC


§ PEMRA: establishment, development, and operational mechanisms

§ Press Council of Pakistan (PCP)

§ Citizens Media Commission: need, present status, and reasons for inactivity

§ Press Code of Ethics

§ Inability of the media to develop a code of ethics as an institution

§ The media’s quest for freedom and its inability to self regulate.


S No. Title Author
1. Broadcast Regulations: the German Example Metzger, Herbert. FES 1993.
2. Communication Models for The Study of Mass
Communication, 2nd Ed
McQuail, Dennis &Windhal, Swen, Longman, 1982.
3. Convergence Culture: Where old and new
Blackwell publishing Ltd, USA.
4. Communication Theories: Origins, Methods and Uses in the Mass Media 5th Ed Werner J. Severin, James W. Tankard Jr. Longman, 1997.
5. Diffusion of Innovations 5th Ed Rogers, Everett M. Free Press
6. Ethics in Journalism: A Reader on Their
Perception in the Third World
Kunczik, Michael (Ed.). FES 1999.
7. Handbok of International and Intercultural
Communication 2nd Ed
Gudykunst & Mody, Sage, 2001.
8. McQuail’s Mass Communication Theory, 4th
Denis McQuail. Sage, 2000.
9. Media And Society into the 21st Century: A Historical Introduction Blackwell publishing Ltd, USA.
10. “Media / Impact” Wads Worth/ Thompson Learning, Belmont, CA
11. “Media Now: Communication Media in the
Information Age”
Wads Worth/Thompson Learning, Belmont, CA
S No. Title Author
12. News Media and Journalism in Pakistan Khan, Altaf. LAP Lambert
Academic Publishing. June 2011.
13. News Media and Journalism in Pakistan and
Germany (Ed.)
Khan, Altaf. Peshawar, 2003.
14. Participatory Development Hasan, Arif, Oxford, 2010.
15. Political Communication in Britain: The Leader
Debates, the Campaign and the Media in the
2010 General Election, (Ed)
Palgrave McMillan, UK
16. Political Communication in Asia, Roultage, NY.
17. “Precision Journalism: A Reporter’s
Introduction to Social and Science Methods”,
4th Ed
Rowman and Littlefield, Lanham, MD.
18. Report and Recommendations of the Media Commission, appointed by the Supreme Court of Pakistan, 2013 FES, Islamabad, 2013.
19. Reporting the Frontier: Media Capacity
Building for Peace in Pakistan’s Tribal Areas
Khan, Altaf VDM Verlag Dr. Müllere.K. June 2011.
20. “Writing, Directing, and Producing
Documentary Films and Vidoes”,.3rd edition
Carbondale: Southern Illinois
Press, 2002.
21. “Directing the Documentary”, 4th edition Focal Press, 2004.
22. “Documentary Storytelling: Making Stronger and More Dramatic Nonfiction Films”, 2nd edition Focal Press, 2007.
23. Principles of Editing McGraw-Hill 1996
24. Journalism–Principles and Practices Vistaar Publications 2006
25. The Hand Book of New Media London: Sage
26. Applying Communication Theory for
Professional Life: An Introduction (2nd Edition)
London: Sage
27. Controversies in Contemporary Advertising Newbury Park: Sage Publications
28. “Public Relations-Writing & Media
Harper Collins College Publishers, NY
29. Telecommunications Policy in Pakistan” Telematics and Informatics
30. “Guaranteeing Copyright- Media Manager’s
Guide to Pakistani Broadcast Law”
Media Manager Companion Series
Internews Pakistan
31. “Model Freedom of Information Act”, 2001 Consumer rights Protection
Commission of Pakistan

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